My name is Chris Wharton, a retired academic biochemist, now an Emeritus Professor at the University of Birmingham, who worked, during his career, with very hi-tech ( v. expensive!) equipment making measurements of enzyme reaction mechanisms, using primarily spectroscopic, (particularly infrared)  & kinetic methods.


Latterly I focussed on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.


When I retired I decided to try to design and build much more simple apparatus that would be cheap, easy to build, easy to use.  It is largely unrelated to what I did during my career but does involve enzymes and kinetics. The kit will hopefully have  application in teaching in schools & in universities as well as more generally in the developing world, e.g. for use in clinical testing in remote locations.


I decided to omit the formal vocabulary & theory of classical conductivity as it can act as a barrier to understanding for those who are unfamiliar with it (like me!).


The alternative to the apparatus described here is the micro/nanotechnology approach. For large scale manufacture this approach is the obvious one. The pro' & con's are discussed later in this presentation.




Without doubt the most impressive developments in microsensor systems have been the amperometric blood glucose analysis kits. In my view these are streaks ahead of any other system owing to the pressure of demand for diabetes testing.


I was able to purchase such a kit for £15 that is fully automated (except the blood taking) & robust for clinical analysis, which is very demanding.



 I would like to thank Dr Eva Hyde for help with this project.




The Proverbial 'Cabin or Shed' - where the work is done!

The proverbial 'SHED' My Lab Assistant

My Lab assistant -'What are we going to do next?'

        She is very good at re-arranging my papers

Author's Notes